Tuesday, September 29, 2009

The very first mantra in Yajurved says " may our cows be free of TB". The second mantra describes in detail the perquisites of good environments to ensure healthy living conditions.
First is abundance of greenery around, next comes plenty of Sunshine, next is Raw Earth for being tread upon, and finally regular performance of Homa to keep the atmosphere free from air borne infections.
Recent press report from Anand in Gujarat , that 60 HF cows had been found positive in TB tests, is cause for worry about safety of Indian Dairy Milk. Milk of Cows suffering from TB can spread TB to Humans. In Europe and USA there is a system of culling such cows and sending them to slaughter houses. Although the cows suffering from TB in Anand are reported to have been shifted to Ahmadabad, but there no word about what actions are proposed next.
It is a well acknowledged fact that Indian breeds of cows normally have much higher disease resistance than Cross Bred Cows. Mastitis is also a very common problem with HF cows.
These high milk yielding cows also very prone to suffer heat stress under warm Indian climate . Cross bred cows compared to Indian breeds of Cows, not only need very good nourishment but also cooler and more comfortable environment. These special conditions can be provided only in well organized dairy farms. In India by and large our Dairy Industry is based on Milk collection from small rural cattle owners. For small rural farmers to ensure that their cattle are not suffering from TB becomes more difficult under the current Govt Veterinary Breeding programs that only encourage cross breeding of Indian cows with HF breeds. There are also no screening tests for detecting TB infected milk at the milk collection centers. This makes the entire Indian Dairy Milk supply a possible source of transfer of TB to human community.
Already World Dairy scientists have discovered that BCM7 ( Beta Caso Morphine 7)is found in Milk of HF cows. This milk is designated as type A1 and has been found to be strongly linked with very large number of human diseases . Starting from Autism and Pediatric diabetes, Milk of HF cows has also been found to have strong association with occurrence of Cardiac Artery diseases, Diabetes, Arthritis, Arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer, and Parkinson.
Milk of Bos Indicus cattle ie Indian breeds of cows has been reported to immune to these diseases. This milk which is free from BCM7 is designated as type A2 Milk.
Dairy farmers around the world have on their own started breeding their cattle for producing A2 milk.
This susceptibility of HF cross bred cows to higher incidence of Mastitis, TB and higher heat stress, in addition to BCM7 , is a very strong argument to discontinue cross breeding of Indian cows with HF.
Greed for higher milk yield from HF cross bred cows should not be at the cost of spreading more disease in the Indian society. Milk yield of Indian breeds of cows is already being successfully improved upon by better feeds , health care and better veterinary practices.

Saturday, September 19, 2009

Suicides by Farmers

About Indians, Max Muller observed: “with hardly any one exception they have displayed a far greater respect for truth and a far more manly and generous spirit than we are accustomed to even in Europe and America.”

And another eminent person observed, “When you read of the atrocities committed by the Mohammedan conquerors of India after that time (1000AD) to the time when England stepped in and, whatever may be said by her envious critics, made at the events, the broad principles of our common humanity respected once more in India, the wonder, to my mind, is how any nation could have survived such an Inferno, without being turned into devils themselves.” (Elphinstone’s History of India)

In India our life style and perceptions predate all modern so called ‘scientific prescriptions’. Just as Hinduism defies all attempts at one line definition so is the case with Indian Agriculture, which again is a ‘way’ of life for majority of Indians even today.
“When fate is inevitable the lowest Hindu encounters it with a coolness that would excite admiration in Europe” (Elphinstone’s History of India)

Then how come of late, we see some of our countrymen turning in to ‘Devils’ and some becoming victims of ‘suicides’, both very ‘modern ‘ prevalent human behavior standards.

The Indian prayer “ Sarve bhawantu sukhina sarve santu niramaya sarve bhadrani pashyantu……..” Where did this prayer, which is unique in the history of human society, originate from and what caused its establishment in our psyche?

Our Hindu scriptures Vedas and Upnishads sing paeans of “ Madhu Vidhya”. Madhu Vidya means living in harmony with nature. This according to Vedas follows from “GO MAHIMA”. These are Bounties that flow from cows as objects of affection.

Speaking in modern context psychologists tell that us that keeping pets at home brings about a change in our personality. It makes an individual more relaxed, tolerant to ‘trespasses’ and pluralistic in his life. It was the practice in India for every Indian to keep a ‘pet’ cow at home. This home cow blessed the Indian psyche with ‘Madhu Vidhya’. In the perception of Indians to be at peace with all things, and this is what the Max Muller and Elphinston are talking about.

The Indian tradition to choose, Cow as universal pet, also points to the immense pragmatic wisdom of Indian seers. Cow consumes and converts all the farming residues and wastes in to Milk. Milk is the most complete sustainable food in nature next only to the mother’s milk.

According to the US agriculture Department, SAN (sustainable Agriculture Network) 'Building Soils for Better Crops', Cow forms the critical link in the Nitrogen and Carbon Cycles of our environment. Add to that the maintenance of the microbial health and micronutrients in the soil, by farm yard manure from Cow.

Thus a cow with every farmer ensures not only healthy source of nutrition for the farmer’s family, but also is a sustainable method to recycle farm waste in to soil nutrients, to keep the soil healthy.

Soil scientists as far back as 1935 led by William Albrecht of Missouri University had warned that over dependence on Chemical Fertilizers leads to depletion of nutrients and microorganisms. The soil becomes sick. And no healthy animals, crops and nutritive food can be extracted from a sick soil. The only way to keep soil healthy is by recycling biomass. Cow is the primary agent to perform this task.
In quest of Green Revolution the Indian Agriculture strategists had perhaps little choice than to go for band aid type solutions to provide quick relief. Chemical fertilizers were promoted on mass scale.

Sir Albert Howard the British Imperial Botanist Service expert who started the Agriculture Researches in India way back in 1906 at Pusa in Bihar, was the first to introduce chemical fertilizers here . But he very soon realized that use of chemical fertilizers also results in disturbing the microorganism of soil. Plants grown are deficient in their natural disease fighting abilities. Thus the plants grown with the help of Chemical Fertilizers require additional use of Chemical pesticides both for soil and as foliar sprays. But the delinking by our planners, animal husbandry from agriculture was the one strategic blunder whose consequences could not be visualized by the experts who were formulating our first Five Year Plan.

Cow was an integral part of our Agriculture. Good Nutritive diet based on pure cow milk, home grown farm yard manure, home preserved seeds were available to our farmer as rewards for his toil. Farmers did not require cash money buy any of these items.
In the present scenario far all his farm inputs a farmer needs cash money for which he seeks loans from wherever he can get.

Our Agriculture experts realize that most of the chemicals, pesticides and seeds sold in the open market are very heavily adulterated, substandard and of very poor germination quality. With such bad essential farm inputs bought from borrowed hard cash total failure of the crops is unavoidable. With failure of his crops, hungry mouths and sick family on his hands and bank creditors on his throat, what else can a poor farmer do but commit suicide. The best our Govts can think of is writing off the loans and doling out cash. But again this is a bandaid treatment. There is no long term strategy for the farmers.

No institution has ever been able to check adulteration. The best guarantee to ensure quality is to revive the household cow of the farmers. Teach the farmers good methods to prepare his own cow based fertilizers, soil; conditioners, seed storage and germination techniques, and at the same time facilitate keeping of good cows by developing cow resource centers in rural clusters. Home made products will not only ensure the quality of farm inputs but also provide better nutrition for the family. The importance of 'cash money' for meeting day to day farming needs will be highly reduced.

For India the only sustainable strategy for society is to bring back household cow as center stage in our agriculture.

Food security, Food safety ,Sustainability and Cows

Our farmers under the guidance of our scientists very successfully brought about the ‘Green Revolution” to give us the food security. By the turn of events, in 2007 we are compelled to launch an urgent Food Security Mission. While deliberating on this in a down to earth manner, there is also need for a little parallel lateral thinking.

From Babar Nama it is known that in the 16th century, India was flush with overflowing granaries and wealth. Even in 18th century very high agriculture yields by the farmers of the then Madras Presidency is confirmed by the British Gazetteers. Just in about two centuries, food surplus India was to suffer the infamous Bengal famine of 1942. But it has taken only a few decades to wipe out the surplus of our “Green Revolution”. The recently reported incidents of suicides among our farmer brothers should also impel us to pay urgent attention also to any additional changes which have come upon the rural scene.

We should be simultaneously looking for strategies to make our Food Security sustainable.
During the deliberations of experts in the conference held in IARI Pusa on 6th Sep. 2007, with Hon. Dr M.S.Swaminathan in the chair, very lively and open house discussions took place.
Following were among main points that emerged for attention.

1. Mental attitudes /perceptions of the people
2. Bringing about improvement in the knowledge and skill base
3. Quality of the available farm input materials i.e. Fertilizers, Seeds, Pesticides etc.
4. Cash needs and management
5. Inadequacy of Weather forecast
6. Problems related to water for irrigation
7. Post harvesting operations
8. Market accessibility and role of SEZ
9. Alternative Energy sources
10. Sustained higher productivity
11.Future consumption patterns( to include animal husbandry dairy milk, poultry, fish and horticukturre

1. Attitudinal Issues.
1.1-Indians had a tradition of community participation, which accounted for proper management of the joint community resources like Community Pastures, Water bodies, Schools, and a number of locally specific Social participative institutions. Erosion of values of these socially relevant but very important for the community customs took place, when these community activities were sought to be taken over by the British Administration .
In the post Independence era, corrective action is being sought to be implemented through reviving and empowerment of Panchayats.
The connection of Panchayat Raj with sustainability of life and Food Security puts the importance of Panchayats in a better perspective. The common community services like looking after the community pasture lands, Water bodies, Sanitation, Health, Primary level Education , Waste Management, Cooperative agriculture and Animal Husbandry related matters have great relevance for sustainable community security.

1.2- Sanitation , Health and Nutrition have been a very neglected area, particularly relating to Would be mothers, Girl Child and Infants in the rural communities.
The mind nutrition foundation of UK1 has established that neonatal and subsequent malnutrition, results in an Unenterprising, Lazy-both physical and mental, Fatalistic attitudes, encouraging parasitic life style. Mid day school milk and Meals programmes also fall in the corrective activities.
Pregnant mother, infant nutrition program had been launched by UN long back. In fact it was reported that of all the countries, China had the distinction of best implementation of these rural nutrition programme. The spectacular progress made by China is attributed to the new generation of young Chinese which has emerged with a more positive proactive mental attitudes, as a result of the Chinese nutritional programs launched in rural areas way back in the 1970s.2
Recently even in USA, Would be mother &Child Nutrition programme have been launched.
NGOs in India also are engaging themselves many initiatives in this field. But a more comprehensive National level initiative is required.
The program will be more sustainable by making available and propagating use of home grown Green Leafy vegetables, and Milk from cattle which almost every rural family used to keep.
Most of these objectives were met traditionally by the Indians by keeping household cows. This practice needs to be encouraged and revived.

2. Knowledge Skill Base
Extension Services have a tendency to be located in Urban areas.
There should be a reorientation of the existing extension services. Every village cluster should have its own extension center. These Extension Centers should be run as sustainable production centers, in affiliation with the nearest University / Research Lab. The individual units should be constituted as small registered bodies, of young local Agri/Vet graduates .
Modern irrigation techniques like drip irrigation, Hydroponics, Green house nurseries, Crop rotation, Soil enrichment by green manures, Biodynamic, Biofertilizers locally grown and developed area specific Horticulture and Fruit crops and good Animal Husbandry Dairy farming practices will be automatically transferred to the local community by actual demonstration of successful practice, on profitable basis.
Their success will itself be a source of knowledge transfer and skill enhancement agent for the area. The seed money for starting such activities can be sourced from Socially responsible Corporates and the Rural Banking input channels. These extension centers to be successful, have to Keep Good Cows .

3 Quality of input materials and soil fertility

The locally home grown materials like biopesticides, biofertilizers, seed treatment and crop sprays only can ensure the cheapest and most reliable products.
The biodynamic ( Rudolf Steiner) preparations from Cow Horns are also now a strategy being promoted even by USAD.
India had a long tradition of soil remediation by Organic and green manures, Crop rotation, seed treatment with Cow Urine and Neem preparations.( Vriksh Ayurved enlists use of such herbs as Ribes Embilium - a deworming agent- as soil sanitizer before planting of trees.)
Even the use of chemical fertilizers has to be supplemented with Organic Manure. Use of gypsum requires Organic manure. Without cow where does one get free Organic Manure?
Even seeds could be mostly home produce selected and saved by proper guidance.
For these strategies training in making good reliable home made preparations needs to be standardized and Keeping of house hold Cow has to be encouraged . Home made products not only ensure more reliable quality of Farm inputs, but also reduce the cash requirements of the farmer.

4. Productivity
Improved quality of input materials and soils fertility, aided by modern knowledge skill imparted by the local extension model farm will be a big change agent in bringing the productivity improvement. With better, skills and knowledge access soil, input materials and healthy farmers productivity can not be low . For that you have to keep House hold cows as discussed above.

5. Weather Forecasting
The quality of meteorological data depends on the accuracy of the observations and the number of weather data collecting stations. Setting up of an individual data collection point is a capital intensive operation, and for good weather forecasting a very large number of data collecting posts is required to be installed. With modern scientific advances and communication development this process can be made very cost effective and accurate.
It is suggested that a proposal should be submitted for the Govt to consider to encourage and allow making use of all the mobile telephone system towers in the country to also record and automatically transmit weather data for the use by the Meteorological Department. This can be a win -win situation for all, the Mets, telecoms and agriculture. As directed by Hon. Dr M.S. Swaminathan, this suggestion has already been forwarded to the Secy, DST GOI.

6. Water

As a matter of conscious planning water intensive crops like paddy and sugar cane should be encouraged to shift to coastal areas, with greater emphasis on Rain water harvesting.
Crops requiring less water have to encouraged in drier areas. For better moisture retention the Humus and Organic Content of the Soil has be improved. This can be done only by encouraging household cows.

7. Post Harvesting:
Refrigeration and cold chain are very important links in post harvesting operations. The zero energy cold chambers could be propagated in areas where feasible. But the most energy efficient green strategy is making available refrigeration to rural masses by devices working directly from Biogas. Kerosene operated refrigerators were very common up 1940s. The gas Operated refrigerators are now becoming popular in USA. In India after cooking of the meals, every individual small family biogas plant is left with some surplus biogas. The quantity of surplus bio gas is too small for power generation, but is adequate to operate a small refrigerator. In India we should have biogas operated refrigerators available for rural areas. This offers very good business opportunities for commercial houses to take interest. This subject has also been referred to the Secy. DST . GOI.
For Bio Gas you need to keep a house hold cow.

1. Market Access: Role of SEZ
Indian Agriculture produce was Organic by default, and has great significance for nutrition and health of the community. Organic Agriculture products, , Horticulture, Floriculture &Milk have greatest market potential in the New World.In fact Milk is already being called the New Oil of the modern world.
Large corporate bodies taking interest in setting up of SEZ , should be advised to develop and create Organic Produce base in their SEZs. This will, but not only open the potentially very big international market for them also ensure a quantum jump in the earnings of a farmer.
But to ensure this strategy, one must encourage keeping of a household Cow, and simultaneously setting up of large Organic agriculture and Dairy Farms in SEZ.

10.Cash Resources
With home grown quality inputs of seeds, fertilizers, organic manure Milk and Milk products for nutrition and energy needs met by Biogas and Organic Produce, through a house hold Cow the Cash requirements of a farmer will be minimized.

To conclude the last suggestion is to develop an integrated Animal Husbandry promotion and development , Horticulture mission approach for sustainable Food Security. An animal feed mission will require to be considered as an integral part of Food Security Mission.

Gausewa concept note for Uttarakhand

House hold family Cow is accepted to be the best change agent for poverty alleviation by experts at United Nations , and this concept is in complete agreement with our Indian traditions. Nutrition improvement for the family and Organic agriculture, which follows from rural cow wealth, adds to the health and prosperity of the society. Love and reverence with which Cow is looked up to, is a great tradition of Uttaranchal society.

Decline of Family Cow tradition:

Declining Pasture availability makes it very difficult for the rural subsistence farming to take care of heifers and dry cows. Under fed cows result in very poor health and productivity of household cows. It is possible by innovative technological interventions, to provide alternative locally available and affordable cattle feed strategies.

Cow care resource Centers
A sustainable stand alone community -public private partnership model for Rural Dry Cow Care Center is proposed here to address these problems.

Main Activities of the cow Care centers:

1. Care of Dry Cows and Heifers of the area.
2. Pre partum and post partum services for the local cows.
3. Implementation of cost effective locally grown Green Forage feed strategies by
modern innovative technological interventions.
4. Provide good breeding facilities for the community cattle.
5. Demonstrate and train local women and youth in modern veterinary care.
6. Provide Crèche/ Nursery school with Milk breakfast/midday meal facility for
their accompanying children.
7. Provide women with adult literacy and mother child nutrition care, by
integrating Angan Wari schemes with the resource center.
8. Day care center for neighborhood cows.

These centers can each have local community area specific, multiple roles. Local women and youth can bring their own as well as their neighbor's cows to the day care center. These centers can also provide a crèche and nursery school to facilitate the day stay of young mothers.
Rural ladies will not have to eke out their life by arduous back breaking work of surreptitiously visiting forest lands to rummage for fodder and fire wood. Ladies can be given training in better cow care and mother child nutrition and literacy help also while they devote time in helping to run these centers while doing Go Sewa in looking after their own cows. In this manner these centers can also be an integral part of 'Angan Wari" Central Govt. scheme, and an excellent platform for the Women Self Help Groups. Training of the Youth in animal husbandry and dairy practices can be also be made a part of the activities of the center. With distance learning open school schemes these centers can thus enhance self employment capability of the rural youth.

Resources Required
Normally in a Cow population under good managed conditions at least one third cows should be wet- giving milk. Maximum one third cows could be dry and needing pre-parturition and post-parturition care. In a village cluster area, having a total population of say 500 cows, a resource center to provide extension services. The number of heifers in a herd of 500 cows could also be about 100. Thus a total care of about 250 cows should be considered. All dry cows of the area can also be accepted for care in the proposed Cow Centers. These cows will be provided with subcutaneous RFID (radio frequency identification devices) for follow up and linkage with the original owners.
These cow centers can be considered for being set up by providing a minimum ten years lease of the available waste lands .

Sustainability/ Support Services

Cow owners will have the first option to redeem their cows after calving from the cow center. These centers should strategically operate as self sustainable stand alone institutions. The commercial working terms can be decided by the individual community leadership.
Govt. establishments and knowledge institutions, will provide initial setting up help, and on regular basis, expert knowledge, training and Veterinary care help as community service.
Initially on about 4 to 5 hectares of waste land sites in a few selected districts such cow care centers can be set up to serve as models. The local rural community leadership, area KVK, Uttaranchal Animal husbandry department, Knowledge institutions like Pant Nagar University, UCOST (Uttaranchal Council of Science and Technology), as they have already shown their interest in these projects, can all play a big role in the successful operation to show a model cow care policy for the entire country to emulate.

Improving Milk Yield of Indian Breeds of Cows and improving the quality of milk of India cows.

Productivity of the Indian breeds of cows has declined progressively in the past mainly due to endemic poverty and inadequate resources in the rural areas. The results have been :-
1. Loss of Pasture lands, due to inadequate care, management and overgrazing.
2. Inappropriate housing and environments, Sanitation, Lack of fresh air,
Inadequate attention to Sunshine, Proper Ventilation, Heat stress, Improper
Bedding conditions.
3. Lack of local availability of good Veterinary health care facilities
4. Inbreeding due to lack of knowledge about ill effects of inbreeding in Cows.
5. No cattle marking and identifications being practiced.
6. Inadequate attention /availability of good breeding bulls,
7. Lack of awareness and availability of Clean/good appropriate quantity of feed
and drinking water,
8. Neglect of adequate feed and care of dry pregnant cows,- Pre partum-post
partum care.
9. Neglect of weaning calves by not providing them with adequate mother's feed.
10. Loving and sensitive comfort care by staff, trained in good cow keeping

Better attention to these areas along with better breeding practices can in just two to three generations of cows ie. in a span of less than ten years, can show very significant improvements in health and milk productivity of cows even without exotic cross breeding practices.

Improving the Quality of Milk

TMR being replaced with GREEN FORAGE
Dairy practices involving concentrated formulated feeds, TMR (Total Mixed Rations) are now considered to produce poorer quality of milk that is admitted to be the leading cause of many modern diseases. It is now accepted world wide that only Green Forage/ Pasture fed cows provide healthy milk.

CLA& Omega 3

CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acids) and high Omega3 ALA (Alpha linoleic Acids) contents, are present only in Grass Fed Cows' milk. CLA9 ( Conjugated Linoleic Acids), Omega 3 ALA (Alpha linoleic Acid) rich milk is now regarded as the only natural food, which is a preventive as well as a medicine for all the self degenerating diseases in human body namely Obesity, Breast Cancer, Diabetes, Blood pressure, Alzheimer, Osteoporosis etc.
Only natural Vitamin D enabling milk is obtained from grass fed cow by the exposure of cows to sunshine. Vitamins A, D, E and K being fat soluble, only when accompanied with CLA and Omega 3 lipids, provide the nutritive functions for the human body in natural form.
Minerals in human diets, also depend on the presence of these high quality lipids for best nutritive assimilation in human body. For instance it is now being recognized that Calcium can not be metabolized in human body in absence of minimum quantity of lipids. Calcium tablets with synthetic Vitamin D are a very big business, but of doubtful utility.
This type of good milk has been found in cows which move about in the open Sunshine and feed on Green Forage, and Algae. New Zealand earns 40% of its foreign trade revenue by selling such milk only.

A1A2 Milk

NZ scientists have discovered that milk of most of Bos Taurus breeds designated as A1 milk, undergoing human digestive process, fractures in to a 7 element peptide designated, BCM7 (Beta Casomorphin 7). BCM7 is an opioid linked to many human diseases from Autism and Diabetes type 1 in infants to Heart troubles, Cancer, Diabetes Alzheimer etc in adults. Only milk of Bos Indicus cows designated as A2 milk is found to be benign.
For India, which has the world's largest population of Bos Indicus cows, this is a very significant finding. This also confirms the ancient Indian views, about importance of milk from Indian breeds of cows.
NZ scientists have by promoting A2 milk designated milk and have added one more dimension to 'good' milk concept. In coming days all good milk will be milk of 'A2 type' and from Green Forage fed Bos Indicus Cows. ( Jersey, Guernsey and Icelandic Cows are also known to have A2 milk)

In a way this suggests a very promising future for the cows of rural India, as more than 80% of Indian cows are Bos Indicus. Thus it becomes very important for us in India to find ways to provide Green Forage to cows in our country to increase both the productivity and the quality of their milk.


The world dairies are aiming at shifting, all their milk production to high quality Organic, Probiotic Milk and milk products. We need to remind ourselves here that the entire original Indian Cow's milk was based on free Pasture feeding and was the best product. Modern dairy science is gradually only now, waking up to this fact. Even the importance of consuming Raw Unpasteurized milk which we in India used to call Dharoshna is now being reestablished.
These are the commercial aspects of challenge; we in India should visualize in the future world milk market.

Alternatives to Pasture Lands

Only well managed Pasture lands can ensure supply of such good quality healthy milk. India has little chance of generating adequate pastures for producing good quality milk. In India, with growing population pressure, there is little possibility of developing any Pastures. Fodder growing on farm land is also considered an uneconomical land use. Innovative technological interventions and some lateral thinking on cattle feed strategies, suggest a starting point..

Hydroponics Fodder:

Growing of Hydroponics fodder ( Soil less controlled environment) 1000Kg per day requires just 30 sq meters of space, which means 300 times higher productivity from land. Irrigation water needs for hydroponics fodder growing are similarly very small being only 4% of water required in conventional fodder growing. All coarse grains/ grasses can be sprouted and fed along with their root mass as sprouted grains and about 200 cms long green grass. Hydroponics feed is considered three times more nutritive than just conventional green fodder. The sprouted grains as an alternative enhance the nutritive value of dry concentrated feeds. This practice has been very well researched and used since 1960s by the pioneering work Dr Murray Smith of Lambert Canada for race horse keepers.
Hydroponics for cattle, is now a very well established strategy in Australia, New Zealand, Israel and USA etc.

By modern innovative technology, Hydroponic Fodder can be considered to bring Pastures to our cows instead of our cows going to Pastures. A Green Forage Feed mix can be designed for Indian conditions. Hydroponics Fodder can be planned to provide say up to 12/15 Kg or more of sprouted coarse grain, about 200 cms high Green fodder as feed for a cow.
Hydroponic Fodder is Organic
Hydroponics fodder is Organic, pesticide/disease free. Hydroponics fodder consisting of sprouted grains, is also of very high digestibility, is rich in minerals and vitamins. Live fresh green feed also provides metabolically high energy instead of cut dead dry silage and solid/coarse grounded grain feeds. Hydroponics Fodder has extremely high digestibility also as compared to other feed formulations.
Hydroponics Fodder in Uttaranchal
A Hydroponics chamber to suit Uttaranchal working can be very easily placed in our proposed cow care centers in Uttaranchal. In fact UCOST and Swami ji at Parmarth Niketan have been in the past many years showing their interest in Hydroponics Fodder for Uttaranchal. It may not be out of place to mention that an imported Hydroponics Fodder unit 'FOMETA' was obtained for cattle breeding farm at Gopeshwar Chamoli in May 1988. This unit had very successfully produced 1000 kg on daily basis of Green fodder for nearly three years, till for legal considerations the operation of this chamber had to be discontinued on an all India basis.
Today after twenty years the technology has made great progress. The Uttaranchal climate is extremely suitable for Hydroponics Fodder production. There is no need to import any Hydroponics Devices for India.
The operation of the Hydroponics Chamber requires a relatively more skill full handling. In these Cow Care Centers, it will be quite feasible to successfully operate and demonstrate the usefulness of Hydroponics Fodder as a cost effective modern cow nutrition technology intervention.

2.Moringa Oleifera, Leucaena, Mulberry, Oak : Use of leaves of such perennial trees are known to provide very good nutrition for cows. No effort has been made in India for harvesting the leaves of these perennial trees by intensive cultivation and coppicing of these trees. Green fodder harvest of 650 tons/hectare has been reported from Moringa plantations. ( Dr Martin L Price, Echo technical notes The Moringa Tree 2007) This is nearly three times higher than the best managed fodder production from land by intensive technical inputs.( Fodder and fodder grasses of India by Dr Punjab Singh). About 6 to 10 Kg of these green leaves can be added to supplement the green forage feed of our cows. Suitability and palatability of Moringa leaf fodder is well researched documented and established. (Effect of feeding different levels of Moringa Oleifera to creole dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk production and composition, Nadir Reyes Sanchez, Eva Sporndly, Inger Lesdin)

3. Marine source feed. For ALA Omega3 in Milk, a Marine source feeds are also considered desirable. Fish meal additives to cow feed, have been suggested by cattle nutritionists. Cow is a herbivore and the long term effects of fish meal additives to cow feed may not be very different than the previously experienced strategies which resulted in Mad Cow Disease. As a herbal alternative Azolla and similar algae should be given a consideration. In south India Azolla has been found easy, more productive and efficient to produce as a fodder crop in shallow ponds. Algae Marine plants about two to three kg per cow as supplementary feed has been tried on cows in South India and is known to improve milk yields. Azolla and similar BGA ( Blue Green Algae) have shown very high yield potentials. According to South Indian users it is reported that 770 tons/year of Azolla can be harvested in one hectare space.

4.Roughage Bhoosa feed : Bhoosa up to about 2 to 3 kg per cow, with above green forage can become a complete balanced feed for our cows.


milk for Indians

It is said that the best government is that which governs the least. It could not be more true than, in case of all food products particularly Milk and Milk products. For all industrial goods, the Quality and Safety of the product is ideally built in to the 'System'. And the system itself should ensure best safety and quality practices with minimum surveillance and administrative intervention.
In a humble way I seek your indulgence to consider this submission on "Milk in India" and with its added social dimensions.

India's Natural Milk Advantage
1. Live stock population
India has the largest livestock population in the world.
2. Potential for very high demand of Milk
Milk enjoys traditionally very high USP among Indian masses because India is predominantly a vegetarian nation. According to FAO study Indian while availability of milk is 232 Ml, but the consumption of liquid milk is only 100 Ml per capita.
Depending upon availability and affordability of Milk, India's per capita milk consumption can go up many times higher. This represents the great potential strength of India's economy and domestic milk market to build upon.
Milk production enhancement offers the fastest and most economical way to improve nation's GDP.

3. Cow Milk has Great Social Significance in India and based on scientific reasons, would easily justify a higher price than any other milk.

3.1 BCM7 Free A2 Milk- the 'good' milk
Bos Indicus Cows , the native Indian breeds of cows represent the world's largest potential source of 'good' A2 type BCM7 free (Beta Casomorphine 7) milk for the world. While in short term dairy experts the world over may ostensibly choose to ignore or question the New Zealand research hypothesis on quality of milk, but it can not be denied that there is overwhelming medical evidence weighted in flavor of BCM7 free A2 milk.
The current market price of A2 milk (milk of Indian breeds of cows) in Australia is Rs28 per liter as compared to Rs11 per liter for A1 commonly made available dairy milk
It will be very short sighted on the part of Indian Milk planners to continue to ignore this natural commercial and social advantage with Milk of Indian breeds of cows. The practical wisdom of Dairy farmers the world over, is motivating them to quietly convert their entire herd to A2 milk producing herds. The cross breeding policies that were being followed for the cattle in the last fifty years are being reviewed in light of this A1-A2 milk hypothesis.
US experts have already begun talking about a ten years plan to modify genetically their Holstein Fresian breeds in to A2 milk producing breed, by replacing amino acid Histedine with Proline at the 67th position of DNA.
Let not our Indian planners be led on the garden path of world milk bodies raising doubts about A2 milk theory. We should also be aware that quietly every Dairy nation is planning a change in its herd breeding policies. It is only a matter of time (say ten years) when India will be suddenly presented with a very large A2 milk production all over the world.

3.2 Desirable unsaturated fats are in Cow milk

Researches at NDRI have shown that Cow's milk has higher proportion of desirable unsaturated fatty acids (Omega3 & CLA) than Buffalo's milk.

For vegetarians ie majority of Indian people, Cow's milk is the most ecologically viable natural source of good fatty acid Omega3 in human diets.( Discovery about greater significance of Omega3 in human nutrition is just about a few years old.) Omega3 incidentally is the only natural source from which human body makes DHA (Decosa Hexaenoic Acid) and EPA (Ecosa Pentaenoic Acid) which not only are said to constitute 70% of human brain but also ensure good eye sights, and energy for the nervous systems.
Along with milk from green fed cows, fish being the other source of natural Omega3. Herein lies the secret that Indians who were over the millennia brought up on these two dietary elements viz. Cow milk and fish. (for those living near water bodies), and are still acknowledged to have the best brains in the world.
Other Omega3 sources are Flax seeds and Chia seeds. But unlike milk or fish in diets, these seeds can not be expected to meet Omega 3 requirements of an entire community.

3.3 Cow milk has 'Vitamin D' advantage.
Cow is called dubhakta lover of sunshine in Vedas, as against buffalo which can hardly stand sunshine. Thus there is no Vitamin D in buffalo milk.

(Vitamin D Miracles) - quoted from internet
Sunlight and vitamin D are critical to all life forms. Standard textbooks state that the principal function of vitamin D is to promote calcium absorption in the gut and calcium transfer across cell membranes, thus contributing to strong bones and a calm, contented nervous system. It is also well recognized that vitamin D aids in the absorption of magnesium, iron and zinc.
Vitamin D also enhances the uptake of toxic metals like lead, cadmium, aluminum and strontium if calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are not present in adequate amounts.
Receptors for vitamin D are found in most of the cells in the body and research during the 1980s suggested that vitamin D contributed to a healthy immune system, promoted muscle strength, regulated the maturation process and contributed to hormone production.
During the last ten years, researchers have made a number of exciting discoveries about vitamin D. They have ascertained, for example, that vitamin D is an antioxidant that is a more effective antioxidant than vitamin E in reducing lipid peroxidation and increasing enzymes that protect against oxidation.
Vitamin D deficiency decreases biosynthesis and release of insulin. Glucose intolerance has been inversely associated with the concentration of vitamin D in the blood. Thus, vitamin D may protect against both Type I and Type II diabetes.
The risk of senile cataract and Macular degeneration with age is reduced in persons with optimal levels of D and carotenoids.
Vitamin D plays a role in regulation of both the "infectious" immune system and the "inflammatory" immune system.
Low vitamin D is associated with several autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, Sjogren's Syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis and Crohn's disease.
Osteoporosis is strongly associated with low vitamin D. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis respond favorably (and rapidly) to higher levels of D plus calcium and magnesium.
Vitamin D deficiency has been mistaken for fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue or peripheral neuropathy.
Infertility is associated with low vitamin D. Vitamin D supports production of estrogen in men and women. PMS has been completely reversed by addition of calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. Menstrual migraine is associated with low levels of vitamin D and calcium.
Breast, prostate, skin and colon cancer have a strong association with low levels of D and lack of sunlight.
Activated vitamin D in the adrenal gland regulates tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme necessary for the production of dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Low D may contribute to chronic fatigue and depression.
People with Parkinsons and Alzheimers have been found to have lower levels of vitamin D.
Low levels of D, and perhaps calcium, in a pregnant mother and later in the child may be the contributing cause of "crooked teeth" and myopia. When these conditions are found in succeeding generations it means the genetics require higher levels of one or both nutrients to optimize health.
Behavior and learning disorders respond well to D and/or calcium combined with an adequate diet and trace minerals.
Vitamin D and Heart Disease
Research suggests that low levels of vitamin D may contribute to or be a cause of syndrome X with associated hypertension, obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Vitamin D regulates vitamin-D-binding proteins and some calcium-binding proteins, which are responsible for carrying calcium to the "right location" and protecting cells from damage by free calcium. Thus, high dietary levels of calcium, when D is insufficient, may contribute to calcification of the arteries, joints, kidney and perhaps even the brain.
Many researchers have postulated that vitamin D deficiency leads to the deposition of calcium in the arteries and hence atherosclerosis, noting that northern countries have higher levels of cardiovascular disease and that more heart attacks occur in winter months.
Scottish researchers found that calcium levels in the hair inversely correlated with arterial calcium-the more calcium or plaque in the arteries, the less calcium in the hair. Ninety percent of men experiencing myocardial infarction had low hair calcium. When vitamin D was administered, the amount of calcium in the beard went up and this rise continued as long as vitamin D was consumed. Almost immediately after stopping supplementation, however, beard calcium fell to pre-supplement levels.
Administration of dietary vitamin D or UV-B treatment has been shown to lower blood pressure, restore insulin sensitivity and lower cholesterol.
The Right Fats
The assimilation and utilization of vitamin D is influenced by the kinds of fats we consume. Increasing levels of both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in the diet decrease the binding of vitamin D to D-binding proteins. Saturated fats, the kind found in butter, tallow and coconut oil, do not have this effect. Nor do the omega-3 fats. D-binding proteins are key to local and peripheral actions of vitamin D. This is an important consideration as Americans have dramatically increased their intake of polyunsaturated oils (from commercial vegetable oils) and monounsaturated oils (from olive oil and canola oil) and decreased their intake of saturated fats over the past 100 years.
In traditional diets, saturated fats supplied varying amounts of vitamin D. Thus, both reduction of saturated fats and increase of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats contribute to the current widespread D deficiency.
Trans fatty acids, found in margarine and shortenings used in most commercial baked goods, should always be avoided. There is evidence that these fats can interfere with the enzyme systems the body uses to convert vitamin D in the liver.)
3.4 Cow milk has also the advantage of Beta Carotene.
Beta Carotene is known to perform following important functions:
1. Protects human body cells from damage by free radicals.
2. Provides a natural source for Vitamin A
3. Enhances functioning of Immune System.
4. Help in maintaining proper functioning of Reproductive System.
These above enumerated advantages of Cow's Milk over Buffalo milk can not be ignored in interest of community health by any body.

4.Total Fats in Milk
Nutrition Science concurs with medical researches that most of the fats in milk are found harmful for human health.
Typical Milk consists of 70% Saturated Fatty Acids, 25% MUFA (Monounsaturated Fatty Acids) and only 5% PUFA (Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids). Ideally Milk could have contained 8% FA,82% MUFA and 10% PUFA. Most of the additional fats in buffalo milk consist of only saturated fats. Death rates in human population due to CHD (Cardiac Heart Disease ) are directly related to saturated fats consumed in human diets.
World milk authorities are already seized of this situation. Multicounty European research project Lipgene is already aiming to obtain a better fat composition in milk of European cattle.
4.1 Good Milk Concept
It has been confirmed in USA at NIH level that Milk rich only in unsaturated fatty acids Omega3 and CLAs ( Conjugated linoleic acids) is the best preventive against all self degenerating human diseases. Accordingly Milk rich in Omega3 and CLA is considered "Good" Milk the world over.
4.2 Total Fat in Milk in Ancient Times
In Atharv Veda chapter 12, 4th Hymn, it is indicated that cows having high fat content in their milk were not to be kept for domestic milk consumption, because such milk was harmful to the family. It was suggested that such cows may be raised by Brahmins ( more intelligent persons/priestly class), who could make ghee out of the milk fat for use in agnihotra offerings. Kautilya's Arth Shastra in 2-25-45-29 describes from administration considerations, the norms prevailing for fat content in milk of Cows, Buffaloes and Goats. Cow it appears was expected to have about 0.625% fat in milk, and buffalo 5 times higher ie 3.125% fat in milk , Goat milk two times higher than cow milk i.e. 1.29% fat.
It is a moot point if over the millennia by domestication and change of feed patterns and pastures to stall feeding, we have brought upon ourselves the genetic transformations in cattle to the present higher fat composition of milk. Modern efforts by Lipgene in EU, are already showing some success in getting low fat natural milk from cattle.
5. Milk Pricing in India
It is also high time that Indian Milk quality guide lines talk not of total fat contents of milk but of good fat contents of milk viz. Omega3 and CLA contents of Milk.
Diagnostic Kits for quick determination of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Milk can be developed with the present state of Biotechnology and Biochemistry expertise. In fact Iodine test shows only the unsaturated fats and can be used to indicate the proportion of unsaturated fats in milk.
The concept of paying higher prices for Buffaloes' milk based on total fat content is an outdated concept coming from the period when modern science had not discovered the significance and role of unsaturated fatty acids in human health.
Higher Total fat content in buffaloes' milk in light of the modern researches would no longer justify the higher price paid for Buffalo Milk,
The advantages in cow's milk of higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in total fats, overwhelming advantage of Vitamin D , Iodine, Beta-Carotene, and iron, justify a higher price for Cow's Milk in interest of community health.

It is submitted therefore that if not higher at least , uniform prices should be paid for all milk i.e. cow, buffalo, goat, sheep etc. It would also be desirable to market cow, buffalo and goat milk separately, without mixing them. There are consumer preferences on more than one consideration to prefer only cow or goat milk over other milks. Such consumers will be also willing to pay higher prices for the milk of their choice.
Premium prices should be paid only for good milk ie milk rich in PUFA and MUFA, ie Omega3 and CLA, and not on total fat contents of milk, as is the practice in India. It bears repetition that bulk saturated fat contents of milk are found to be unhealthy in human diet. So there is hardly any sense in promoting high fat content milk by paying higher prices for the disease promoting milk in the interest of public health.
In promoting buffalo milk our Dairy planners are also knowingly ignoring the higher unsanitary conditions associated with buffalo upkeep and buffalo milk.

6. Supply Chain Consideration.
It is an environmental cliché that our food supply chain should be the shortest. But for a warm country like India, the short food supply chain has a far greater significance. Shorter Milk supply chain requires lesser interventions to increase the shelf life. This means lesser role of additives and preservatives in milk and milk products. Ideally a household cow in rural and periurban areas is the ideal and involves the shortest milk supply chain.
Such an approach to milk will considerably minimize the milk quality monitoring infrastructure and expense. The final test of good milk quality is only taste and smell by the consumer of Taste and Smell. . No laboratory test can be better and cheaper than final cost free test of Taste and Smell by consumer.
7. Export potential of our Milk
7.1 Role of FSSAI
The organized Dairy Industry on its own admission caters to only 15% of India's milk demand. It is therefore logical that a central authority like the FSSAI ought to concern itself with the larger responsibility of addressing the entire nation's milk situation, rather than just 15% of Dairy milk, which is a small fraction of the total.
7.2 International milk standards/codes
Over emphasis on the international codes and standards become applicable only when there is scope and objectives connected with India making a big bid to enter global milk market. India has the world's oldest milk consuming society, and there is precious little that we have to learn from the western nations about milk and strategies that India should follow in managing its Milk production and consumption. India's climate, local situations and public traditions need only India specific strategies. Let us be realistic so long as we have a tremendous domestic demand for milk the talk of exports of milk on any large scale may not be feasible.
Secondly with 'Buffalo' milk in our 'pail', there will not be many unhesitant foreign buyers of Indian milk and milk products.

8. Enhancing Health and Milk yield of Indian Cattle.
Our Practical Demonstration of 20% Growth
8.1 Pre Partum/post partum care
It is now universally acknowledged and demonstrated in practice that through better pre- partum post- partum and planned management of cattle, remarkable improvements in milk yield are possible even in the local breeds of Indian cows. This is one area that needs far greater emphasis in our veterinary extension work.

Starting with a herd of about a dozen cows nearly 1 7 years ago, inaugurated with the blessings of the Prime minister Indira ji and nurtured by the then Agriculture Minister Shri Balram Jakhar ji, MDGSK (Maharishi Dayanad Gosamwardhan Kendra) in East Delhi, to day has a herd strength over 450. Milk yield peak touched 1150 liters in a month this year.
This institution can be seen to have recorded better than 20% year on year cumulative growth in herd strength and milk production and is a self sustaining Goshala model in Delhi.
This has been achieved without resorting to AI, and Cross Breeding with European cattle, only with Indian breeds of Cows.
This only shows that 4 to5% increase in Milk production figures projected in our country are far below the potentials achievable.
It is hoped that this endeavor can offer subject for a close case study of a sustainable stand alone NGO effort.

9. Enhancement of Green fodder availability

Even USAD has resolved to promote green fodder enhancement strategies in USA. Only green feed based Cow's milk is the best for human nutrition, as explained above in 4.2.
Following three areas are being explored by us in MDGSK in Delhi, in the prevailing current situation in India

1 To suit the local Indian conditions development of cost effective
Hydroponics Fodder devices
2.Development of perennial leaf fodder trees.
3. Marine Algae as supplementary green fodder.

Animal husbandry Department can ill afford to put the entire responsibility for health and good nutrition of the nation as concern and jurisdiction of Health Ministry.

Cow's milk for Delhi

Concept note for optimization and sustainable operation for Street Cows and Small Dairy facilities in NCR, with inputs of, veterinary management, environment friendly vocational training, knowledge, education, skill development, and entrepreneurship enhancement.


1.To rehabilitate the Stray Cows being rescued from road sides by
making best use of the cattle wealth of Delhi, and providing
organizational support to unorganized dairy sector in NCR.

The total cattle population in NCR, which can be mobilized to
become an integral part of this scheme is estimated to be more than
100,000, which has a potential of providing on daily basis more than
4 lac liters of clean fresh, healthy and premium Milk produced in

2. To make available premium quality milk to discerning citizens of
Delhi and bring about simultaneously social prosperity among small
farmers of NCR by using animal husbandry, as a change agent.

3.Support the promotion of milk distribution for school going young
children by introducing pure milk in the school meal system,
making a start with (Govt. girl schools.) –Funding for milk for school
children is possible under UN sponsored FAO schemes.

4.Promotion and Making available for public unadulterated, natural/raw
cow’s milk, as a premium value added product and Cow dung and
Urine based products for organic farming inputs.

5.Initiate and establish a sustainable Environment friendly, Locally
produced Organic Food chain system as a model, with rural house
hold cow as the starting point.

6.Environmental Education for school children, Animal Husbandry
and Horticulture based self employment by distance learning
schemes for the youth.

7. To show case a system which makes best use of very limited land
available in NCR by promotion of Dairy and Horticultural needs of
an Urban Community by making available locally produced fresh
milk and green vegetables.( which can be premium products for a
discerning Organic seeking clientele.)

8. Mobilization on Voluntary basis, Youth, Senior citizens, retired
persons in community developmental activities.

2. Strength:-

1. There exists deep cultural and emotional bond for Cows, among majority of Indians in general.
2. Pure Cow’s Milk has an unbelievable USP in Indian perception.
3. Govt. is already actively supporting the schemes to rehabilitate and
take care of ‘Cows on the Street’ Delhi Govt authorities have been
very generous in making available land for the NGO’s to take
charge of ‘Stray cows’, and provide help by way of nutrition, feeds,
medicine supplies and medical facilities.
3. Govt. is already actively pursuing schemes to establish Dairy
clusters for the unorganized Dairy sector in the NCR
4. There is already very good NGO support in place and more is
possible for these activities.
5. Many rural areas in NCR are already partly depending on Dairy
farming to supplement their livelihood.
6. Youth, Senior Citizens and Retired persons, can be provided with an opportunity to register themselves, for donating of some of their spare time, for community services, on purely voluntary basis, which is a standard practice, in most of the developed world. Canadian practice can be given a consideration, as an example.


1. Limitation of Physical Space.
2. Paucity of Public Funding.
3. Lack of knowledge, education, Skills in best Animal Husbandry and Modern Horticultural practices, sustainable environmental strategies which are possible to be followed, not only in rural areas but also in urban areas.
4. Low availability of good Cattle feed in general in India, more so in Delhi, particularly green fodder.
5. Poor sanitation and drinking water availability.
6. Inadequacy of existing infrastructure.
7. Difficult Electricity situation.

4. Action Plan
(to address the Opportunities and the weaknesses mentioned above.)

1. Stray Cows:
Rehabilitation of the stray Cows being rescued from road sides
The stray Cows on the road side are conceived as an urban
menace and liability but can be turned in to an asset by appropriate
Veterinary interventions.

2. Unorganized Dairies:
Delhi Govt. have already taken the initiative of organizing dairy
clusters like the one existing in Ghazipur , Bawana etc.and the future
ones like the now proposed at Ghogha, to provide optimum Dairy
Cluster community service.
The problems being faced by both of these, NGOs in Gosadans and the Small Dairy operators, are common and basic.
Possible remedial efforts are suggested below.

A-Registration –Record Keeping:
A standard System of uniform visible marking of all the cows in the
custody of Gosadans and small dairy operators should be notified, and
made mandatory .(This is a standard practice in all major dairy areas
world over.)
The currently used implanting of Microchip method is of use
only to MCD in tracability of all the stray cattle. Apart from being
very expensive this method of marking does not serve any purpose
for the Gosadans or Dairy persons for record keeping about the health,
productivity and genetic improvements which are being brought about
by good cow management. For the improvement of any herd proper
record keeping is the most important starting point, and has been
uniformly neglected in India. Cryogenic Branding
For good cow management Cryogenic Branding is the most inexpensive
and easy method of Branding the cows, and training to implement this
system should be provided .

RECORD KEEPING- Good Record keeping practice should be taught to all Gosadans and Small Dairy persons.

All sick cows in Gosadans, for being given proper medical treatment, should be segregated from productive and potentially productive cows.
Ruminotomy (Surgical removal of plastics and foreign metallic objects from cow’s stomach) Facilities and practice should be introduced to save the Cows which have ingested plastic, and metallic objects from roadside,
from perishing


There is very little familiarity among the Dairy owners and Gosadans about the most cost effective housing construction designs to be followed for the housing of Cattle in the climate of NCR.
Based on the existing Indian Standards, after incorporating some alternatives based on field experience in Delhi, guide lines can be made available giving details of basic designs for housing suitable for housing of a few cattle by individual rural household, to the larger Gosadans. This help can be provided by MDGK( Maharishi Dayanand Gosamwardhan Kendra) Ghazipur, Delhi-96, with guidance from Animal Husbandry Deptt.


To maintain good milk productivity, and health of cows, guidance on planning, clean environments, adequate provision of water required for drinking, washing of cows, proper breeding, breed improvement by natural breeding and maintenance of Dairy facilities is very important in Gosadans and the Dairy Cluster. These aspects need effective intervention, and guidance and trained manpower.

Rain Water Harvesting, Water Recycling, and Biogas schemes on small individual and community levels, and larger Gosadan levels need to be put in place. Large plants can supplement methane gas availability for the community in a very sustainable manner. In fact by way of Carbon Credits such schemes can made cost effective also.
While the Animal Husbandry experts could provide estimates for per capita requirements of water for drinking , washing and cleaning in the Dairies, organizations like Dabur Ayurvet and MDGK could involve themselves in sustainable strategies of Dung Disposal at site by best possible Biogas plant and vermicompost systems, with active advice of Animal Husbandry Experts, MNES, ICAR.

D.Feed for Cattle

The best practice for cattle feed is acknowledged to be green pasture feeding. In the absence of pastures total stall feeding is being resorted to. Total stall feeding is now realized to be not only a cost intensive , but the quality of the milk also suffers due to shortage of greens in the cattle feed.
The ‘self formulated’ tradition feed given by most people, suffers from adulterated and unbalanced cattle feed inputs. This harms the health and milk productivity and economics of Dairy Milk.
Best alternative for Urbanized areas like NCR is TMR (Total Mixed
Ration). Some TMR is already available, but quality norms and
manufacturers of good reputations have to establish before TMR
becomes common.
Movement and storage of ‘Bhoosa’ not only requires very large space but poses big traffic hazard on roads. ‘Bhoosa’ in compressed bales is not available in India yet. This aspect needs a little more attention.
In the present scenario, Cattle feed from good reputed manufacturers conforming to national quality norms supplemented by “Hydroponics Green Fodder” and Azolla, both of which do not require electricity help, suggest themselves as the most cost effective modern interventions. Experience of MDGK and Dabur Ayurvet, on these lines can be shared with all NCR cattle operations.

E.Packaging of Milk

About 5 years ago based on FAO reports on Village Milk Systems
we at MDGK had started making one liter raw milk pouches. This system has been found very cost effective and satisfactory. We would like to recommend this system for adoption by most milk producers in the NCR. The Raw Milk produced by healthy clean cows under very clean hygienic conditions, can stay unspoilt for up to 4 hours after milking and normally for distribution in nearby areas up to 10 Km distance, we find this a very good arrangement.
The consumer is assured of good clean healthy ‘ live’ milk, without any modern intervention of Pasteurizations, Homogenization etc.
A number of sister Goshalas have shown interest in this form of packaging and we have been sharing our experience with all without any hesitation.

Transport and distribution of open milk in cans should be discouraged and ultimately phased out.

5.Training of Manpower

Availability of trained manpower in good milch cattle keeping has been
a bottleneck. This subject has been under informal discussions with
IGNOU. Under the distance learning vocational courses, a program
has been developed by IGNOU for training of literate youth in the art
of good cow keeping. which the youth , can join the Goshalas/
Gosadans to have hands on animal husbandry dairy farming
experience and enhance their learning to qualify for getting a diploma
after completing the course requirements, they are also qualified to
get loans from Banks to start a small Dairy enterprise of their own
with 4 to 5 cows. With improved knowledge base, many
rural youth find this to be a very desirable vocation.

During their stay at the Goshalas/Gosadans for the physical service
done the youth can be paid a stipend to see them through this
training period.
The availability of better skilled educated Dairy operators will be a
big gain in due course of time.

6.Milk Distribution

One liter packets can be supplied directly by the milk producers, to the
Consumers, within distances they can cover on Bicycles or
motorbikes. Unreliability of the milk supplied in open cans will be
finished. The milk producer will get better price and the consumer
better milk.

Even smaller packages of say about 250 to 300ml of sweetened milk
can be considered for free supply to school children in the rural
areas, making a start with Girl’s School, to ensure better girl
child nutrition and encourage girl child attendance in schools. Boys
schools can be asked to make 50% payment for school milk

Fat content of Cow's Milk

It is now accepted world wide that only Green Forage/ Pasture fed cows provide best and healthy milk. The most important natural components of good milk are considered to be preventive as well as cures for most of these diseases.

Under modern commercial pressures, the fat content of Milk has been accorded the highest desirable criteria. But the latest community health researches have shown that the emphasis on Fat in the Milk is not in the best interests of human health. Vedas are recognized as the oldest book in the library of human civilization. Some ideas about the prehistoric period when Cows were first being domesticated , can be gleaned from Vedas.
Vedas describe the environments and feeds conducive to good practices for Cows. Rig Veda Mantra 10-169-1, Verdant atmosphere, where peacocks are dancing in cool breeze, Cows feed on medicinal natural herbs and vegetation, have clean natural water to drink, and tread upon clean ground free from any pollutants.
RV10-1692, describes that these cows may be of one color, or multicolored, but they carry different names given to them. Great labor/effort has gone in to developing them . They thrive on rain fed vegetations.
RV 10-169-3 They produce good milk through their
ancient Indian traditions cows were segregated in to normal fat producing milk and heavy fat content milk. Only low fat content milk was considered good for family consumption. High fat content milk cows were to be used for helping the priestly class in the performing of Havans. In fact Vedas go to the extent of saying that those families are ruined who keep cows that give high fat content Milk. Such cows that produce high Fat content Milk must to be donated to priests for making more ghee to perform havans.
In terms of weights and measures prevailing from Mahabharata times, and the standards laid down by Kautilya, on milk fat contents, one drona Buffalo milk had five prasth fat, one drona cow milk had one prasth of fat, and one drona goat/sheep milk had 2/5th prasth fat. One drona is equal to 16 prasth . Thus ancient Indian Standards for fat in Milk provided for only 0.625% fats in Cow's milk and five times more than cow's milk in Buffalo milk ie. only 3.125% fats. This is only to indicate how over the past, the changes in cattle feeding practices have changed the composition of Cow's milk. Due to improper feeds the quality and the quantity of fat content in cow's milk have undergone a distortion, which has not been in the best interests of human health. Concentrated formulated grains feeds for cattle are now recognized to be not the best form of cattle feed strategy. (Reference Kautilya's Artha Shastra and Panini Kalin Bharat by Dr Vasudev Sharan Agarwal) By our veterinary interventions over the past millennia we may have participated in the evolutions of cow breeds that are producing much higher levels of fat content in their milk.

It is a fact that when the milk yield of a cow is high the fat content is low. It is possible that combined with high milk yields and almost total pasture feeding was responsible for low fat milk of the Indian cows in ancient times. The very low milk yield of Indian cows can also contribute to higher fat in their milk.
In fact there are directions in Atharva Veda that only cows with low fat in their milk should be kept as family cows. Higher fat content milk yielding cows should be donated to priestly class who require the milk fats in larger quantities for offering to fire in performing of Yagnas.
Atharva veda further goes on to say that those families who use high fat milk suffer disease and destruction. We have to day arrived at a stage when the medical experts advise that Cow's milk is not good for our health.

2.Quality of Fats in Cow's milk

Particular attention is drawn to CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acids) and high Omega3 ALA (Alpha linoleic Acids) contents, in Grass Fed Cows' milk. Only natural Vitamin D enabling milk is obtained from grass fed cow by the exposure of cows to sunshine. Vitamins A, D, E and K being fat soluble, when accompanied with CLA , Omega 3 lipids and Omega 6 , provide the nutritive functions for the human body in natural form. Minerals also depend on the presence of these high quality lipids for best nutritive assimilation in human body. It is now recognized that Calcium can not be metabolized in human body in absence of minimum quantity of lipids. Calcium tablets with synthetic Vitamin D are a very big business, but of doubtful utility.
CLA9 ( Conjugated Linolenic Acids), Omega 3 ALA (Alpha linolenic Acid) and Omega 6 , rich milk is now regarded as the only natural food, which is a preventive as well as a medicine for all the self degenerating diseases in human body namely Obesity, Breast Cancer, Diabetes, Blood pressure, Alzheimer, Osteoporosis etc.
This type of good milk has been found in cows which move about in the open Sunshine and feed on Green Forage, and Algae. New Zealand earns 40% of its foreign trade revenue by selling such grass fed cow's milk only.
NZ scientists have also made another startling discovery about their Dairy Milk. This milk in human digestive process fractures to produce a 7 amino acid peptide designated as BCM7 (Beta Casomorphin 7). BCM7 is an opioid that has found linked to many human diseases from Autism and Diabetes type 1 in infants to Heart troubles, Cancer, Diabetes Alzheimer etc in adults. It was found that most of the milk which fractures in to free BCM7 is from European breeds of Cows. This milk is designated as A1 milk. Only milk from Bos Indicus cows, Jersey, Guernsey and Icelandic cows has been found to be benign. This milk is designated as A2 milk. (Ref. 'Devil in the Milk' by Keith Woodford NZ)
For India, which has the world's largest population of Bos Indicus cows, this is a very significant finding. This only goes to confirm the ancient Indian traditional views, about importance of milk from Indian breeds of cows.
Thus NZ scientists have by promoting A2 designated milk added one more dimension to 'good' milk concept.
In coming days the entire Dairy world may undergo a revolutionary change. All good milk will be milk of 'A2 type' and from Green Forage fed genetically Bos Indicus linked Cows.

In a way this suggests a very promising future for the cows of rural India, as more than 80% of Indian cows are Bos Indicus. Thus it becomes very important for us in India to find ways to provide Green Forage to cows in our country to increase both the productivity and the quality of their milk. This is also a very significant modern science discovery in the interest of community health.

The world dairies are aiming at shifting, all their milk production to high quality Organic, Probiotic Milk and milk products. We need to remind ourselves here that the entire original Indian Cow's milk was based on free Pasture feeding and was the best product. Modern dairy science is gradually only now, waking up to this fact. Even the importance consuming Raw Unpasteurized milk which we in India used to call Dharoshna is now being reestablished.